Abstract Background Biobanks are considered to be key infrastructures for research development and have generated a lot of debate about their ethical, legal and social implications ELSI. While the focus has been on human genomic research, rapid advances in human microbiome research further complicate the debate. Discussion We draw on two cystic fibrosis biobanks in Toronto, Canada, to illustrate our points. The biobanks have been established to facilitate sample and data sharing for research into the link between disease progression and microbial dynamics in the lungs of pediatric and adult patients.
This significantly reduces the costs associated with transporting the gas to markets. Fewer trucks and processing facilities are required because the gas can be piped directly to where it is needed.
Economies based primarily on the extraction of non-renewable resources tend to follow a cycle of explosive growth followed by a period of decline. Many communities in PA are on the cusp of the fourth wave of extraction following timber, coal, and oil though the implications of natural gas development have the potential to far exceed those of the previous waves.
The scale and speed of natural gas development in the state has already surpassed what planners and managers had anticipated and the growth is likely to continue at a faster rate in the future.
In this type of economic model, there are generally three phases of development. First, during the Development Phase for natural gas, wells, roads, and pipelines are constructed and the drilling and fracturing of the shale is completed.
This phase is extremely labor intensive, providing many jobs for the community both skilled and unskilled and boosting local economies both directly and indirectly through a multiplier effectbut it is relatively short-lived.
Most of these jobs are temporary and once the development is completed, the economic stimulus will recede. Currently, many areas of Pennsylvania are in this phase of development. Following the initial development, the economy will enter into the Production Phase. This phase is marked by the actual extraction of the resource and the labor force is small, but steady.
Jobs include transportation, management and monitoring of drilling sites, and occasional re-working and re-drilling of wells. Finally, after the resource has been extracted, the final stage of development is the Reclamation Phase.
During this time, rigs are dismantled and the land is reclaimed for other uses. From a social perspective, there are typically four attitude stages that a community will go through during the development cycle.
At first, people tend to be enthusiastic and open to development. The future is seen in terms of income and possibilities and the potential negative impacts are often overlooked.
This is followed by a period of uncertainty as the community begins to change and the negative impacts start to become evident. At this point, communities are often divided into supporters of the development and those who oppose it. Next, the community enters a state of near-panic as the development and impacts from it grows faster than expected.
Long-term residents may become confused or angry and conflicts may arise. Finally, these conflicts lead to adaptation. The core problems are identified and planning and mitigation strategies are developed. The text above is an excerpt with some relevant changes from a paper I wrote on the social impacts of Marcellus Shale drilling.
I posted it because the Marcellus Shale group focused on economic impacts as a major benefit as the basis for their ethical argument. This may be dangerous as the economic benefit tends to be short-lived in this type of system and is usually followed by a sharp decline in economic, social, and environmental resources after the euphoria wears off sometimes ending in a worse-off state than before the development began.
For further reading, check out the following sources: Boomtowns and offshore energy impact assessment: The development of a comprehensive model.
Sociological Perspectives, 29 2 Some social consequences of boom towns. In your presentation you argued that it was not necessary to adjudicate between economic growth and environmental protection, since it was possible to substitute green jobs for traditional jobs, change techniques, and so forth.
This may be true in principle, but you then stated that hydrofracking was the only viable way to produce gas from tight shale like the Marcellus formation.
In which case, you can't just substitute other techniques for creating economic growth unless we invent a new technology for tight shales. Therefore, a shift to green jobs, say, for the Marcellus region, would further some people's interests the citizens, perhaps, and the green industries while hurting other people's interests the gas companies.
While I am more than happy to hurt the gas companies, I wonder on what principle you rest your action, since this does not seem to be as much of an "everybody gains" situation as you presented in class.
You acknowledged that your central ethical principle, health and human flourishing, and gas extraction were already in conflict, so maybe there's no problem here.
But I'm just wondering.
4 Examples of Ethical Issues in Business Environmental ethics is formally defined as the study of human interaction with nature. In a business sense, environmental ethics is concerned with a company's responsibility to protect the environment in which it operates. Ethics in Organizations and Leadership ethical environment of the organization. Researchers (e.g., Cartwright & Cooper, ; Zammuto & Krakower, ; as reality, the environment, and human nature? Should humans be active, passive, self-developmental, or fatalistic? Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely .
Language, the Environment and Social Justice. The field of eco-linguistics, or language ecology, is the study of language in an ecological context, framing world languages as having a kind of ecology of their own.Ethics in Organizations and Leadership ethical environment of the organization.
Researchers (e.g., Cartwright & Cooper, ; Zammuto & Krakower, ; as reality, the environment, and human nature? Should humans be active, passive, self-developmental, or fatalistic?
New ethical and political challenges. It is in the nature of human development that new ethical and political problems constantly evolve. The starting point of the ESER symposium from which this mini-collection derives, was the transition environmental and sustainability education (ESE) has undergone where social and human development issues, alongside environmental issues, have gradually.
A Discussion on the Ethical Implications of Human Interactions With the Environment. words. 3 pages. The Effects of the Depletion of the Green Sea Turtle in the Andros Barrier Reef on the Coral Reef Growth of Coral Reefs.
2, words. 10 pages. Western Environmentalism and Amazonian Indians. Discussion in the following section builds upon all these discourses, with an emphasis on the implications of the interactions between genetic susceptibility and social and behavioral factors. Another very important area in the ethical, legal, and social implications realm is that of the granting and licensing of intellectual property rights on.
When applied to the study of human beings, an evolutionary view makes no claim for the rational necessity of human nature, or for its immutability and timelessness; nor does it claim that an account of human nature will show that human nature is rationally related to the rest of the universe.
Ethical Issues in the Environmental Health Research. The ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects are similar to those that arise in clinical research, but there are some situations unique to environmental health researches that create dilemmas rarely encountered by clinical researchers.