Tactics included anonymous phone calls, IRS audits, and the creation of documents that would divide the American communist organization internally. Howarda civil rights leader, surgeon, and wealthy entrepreneur in Mississippi who had criticized FBI inaction in solving recent murders of George W.
But the two most prominent leaders of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States in the ss, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr, only met each other once, and even then it was almost by accident.
It was on March 26,in Washington, D. Malcolm had come to the US Senate to attend a debate about civil rights. After it was over, he slipped into the back row of a nearby news conference of Martin Luther King Jr.
At the end of it, Martin left through one door, and Malcolm quickly slipped out of another one and stopped King in his path. Growing Up The tensions between the two men, which become clear in this encounter, had their roots in life experiences from long before either of them became involved in the Civil Rights Movement.
Martin was born infour years after Malcolm. Both were the sons of politically active Baptist preachers, so from an early age both were exposed to active resistance to the racism prevalent in American society at a time.
By the end of the s, when Malcolm was only a teenager, his mother had been admitted to a mental asylum. Martin, by stark contrast, fared well throughout the Great Depression as the son a prosperous religious leader. His father was an anti-racism activist, and this meant that Martin, too, suffered accordingly at the hands of racists, even to the point that Martin almost attempted suicide at one point.
As he became an adult, Malcolm became involved in drug use and criminal activity, and he developed a resistance of resisting all authority — which quickly landed him in jail.
The specificity of the NOI left Malcolm unexposed and uninterested in the much broader subjects of black history and culture, and, more recently, the Civil Rights Movement. But after such a traumatic childhood, he enjoyed his place in the NOI, as it gave him a sense of belonging and purpose.
Martin, by contrast, not only attended university but also found much more positively inspiring role models than Elijah Muhammed to look up to as he joined the struggle for civil rights, in which Malcolm had a slight headstart. But Martin had other advantages in this inadvertent race, such as the fact that he was a Baptist leader, and Baptism was the most common religious affiliation of African-Americans at the time.
By the s, Malcolm had risen in the ranks of the NOI and become the most active advocate of its black supremacist knock-off of Islam. But by then Martin was the most popular leader of the Civil Rights Movement in the country. And it was probably at this point, in the mids, that Malcolm and Martin first became aware of each other.
Early Activism Their disagreements started off right then and there. Malcolm and the NOI were rejected, and from that point on Malcolm repeatedly tried to meet with Martin, and Martin repeatedly ignored him.
InMartin rejected two offers from Malcolm, the first to a debate-type event and the second to speak at a rally that Malcolm had organized in New York City.
Nor could Martin continue to ignore his fiercest black critic, who was becoming increasingly popular among politically-active black youth. In his youth, there was no hope, no preaching, teaching or movements of nonviolence… and yet he possessed a native intelligence and drive which demanded an outlet and means of expression.
Malcolm] would talk less of violence, because violence is not going to solve our problem. Only a few months later, in earlyMalcolm made his famous hajj, or Islamic pilgrimage to Makkah.
He returned a changed man — no longer a member of the NOI, no longer a black supremacist, and now truly a Muslim and more open to working together with Martin and other leaders he had previously criticized.
An example of his initiative during this time can be seen in his impromptu meeting with Martin in Washington, D. I really did come thinking that I could make it easier.
Martin was visibly disturbed by the news.COINTELPRO (Portmanteau derived from COunter INTELligence PROgram) (–) was a series of covert, and at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations.
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AFAM Intro to African American Studies This course provides an overview of African American history and culture.
Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times. INFLUENCE The est Training. est didn’t come out of the world. est originated out of an experience. And the experience lives on through the over one million people that participated in the est Training.
A difference between Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X was that the former believed in integrating whites and African Americans. Elijah Muhammad, a leader of the Nation of Islam, promoted.