Birchfield Overview Pueblo peoples have lived in the American Southwest for thousands of years. Their ancient ruins, particularly Ancestral Puebloan cliff dwellings, are among the most spectacular ancient ruins in North America. By the end of the severe, prolonged droughts in the late fourteenth century they had relocated to the vicinity of their modern communities primarily located within the watershed of the upper Rio Grande River Valley in New Mexico and the watershed of the Little Colorado River in Arizona. The pueblo tribes represent several distantly related language families and dialects, and they have continued to maintain close contact with each other since the arrival of Europeans in the region in the sixteenth century.
Eventually, the term came to refer to all Ozark Plateau drainage into the Arkansas and Missouri Rivers. An alternative origin for the name "Ozark" relates the French term aux arcs.
In the later 17th and early 18th centuries, French cartographers mapped the Arkansas and Mississippi Rivers. The large, top most arc or bend in this part of the Arkansas River was referred to as the aux arcs—the top or most northern arc in the whole of the lower Arkansas.
Travelers arriving by boat would disembark at this top bend of the river to explore the Ozarks; the town of Ozark, Arkansas is located on the north bank at this location. Other possible derivations include aux arcs meaning "[land] Comanche culture essay the arches,"  in reference to the dozens of natural bridges formed by erosion and collapsed caves in the Ozark region.
It is even suggested aux arcs is an abbreviation of aux arcs-en-ciel, French for "toward the rainbows," which are a common sight in the mountainous regions.
After the Louisiana Purchase inAmerican travelers in the region referred to various features of the upland areas using the term Ozark, such Comanche culture essay Ozark Mountains and Ozark forests. By the early 20th century, the Ozarks had become a generic and widely used term.
Karst features such as springs losing streamssinkholes and caves are common in the limestones of the Springfield Plateau and abundant in the dolostone bedrock of the Salem Plateau and Boston Mountains. Kept open by periodic fires that limit growth of grasses and forbs in shallow soil, glades are home to collared lizards, tarantulas, scorpions, cacti and other species more typical of the desert southwest.
The Ouachita Mountains to the south rise a few hundred feet higher, but are not geographically associated with the Ozarks. Summits can reach elevations of just over 2, feet m with valleys to 1, feet m deep m to m. Turner Ward Knob is the highest named peak.
Located in western Newton County, Arkansasits elevation is 2, feet m. Nearby, five unnamed peaks have elevations at or slightly above 2, feet m. Drainage is primarily to the White River, with the exception of the Illinois Riveralthough there also is considerable drainage from the south slopes of the Boston Mountains to the Arkansas River.
Although the Springfield formation's surface is primarily Mississippian limestone and chertthe Salem Plateau is older Ordovician dolostones, limestones, and sandstones. The formations are separated by steep escarpments that dramatically interrupt the rolling hills.
Although much of the Springfield Plateau has been denuded of the surface layers of the Boston Mountains, large remnants of these younger layers are present throughout the southern end of the formation, possibly suggesting a peneplain process.
The igneous and volcanic rocks of the Saint Francois Mountains are the exposed remains of a Proterozoic mountain range hundreds of millions of years old. The remaining hills are the exposed portion of an extensive terrane the Spavinaw terrane in part of granitic and rhyolitic rocks dating from to mya that stretches from Ohio to western Oklahoma.
Reef complexes occur in the sedimentary layers surrounding this ancient island. These flanking reefs were points of concentration for later ore -bearing fluids which formed the rich lead - zinc ores that have been and continue to be mined in the area.
The igneous and volcanic rocks extend at depth under the relatively thin veneer of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and form the basal crust of the entire region. A major unconformity in the region attests that the Ozarks were above sea level for several hundred million years from the time of the volcanism in the Precambrian until the mid- Cambrian with an erosionally produced relief of up to feet.
Coral reefs formed around the granite and rhyolite islands in this Cambrian sea. This carbonate formation, the Bonneterre now mostly dolomiteis exposed around the St.
Withdrawal of the seas resulted in another unconformity during the latest Cambrian and early Ordovician periods. Hydrothermal mineralizing fluids formed the rich lead ore deposits of the Lead Belt during this time.
The sandstone of the Roubidoux forms prominent bluffs along the streams eroding into the southern part of the Salem Plateau. The Roubidoux and Gunter sandstones serve as significant aquifers when present in the subsurface.
The source of the sands is considered to be the emerging Wisconsin Dome to the northeast. These are eroded and form steep hills, valleys and bluffs. The Boston Mountains are a high and deeply dissected plateau.
The rocks of the region are essentially little disturbed, flat-lying sedimentary layers of Paleozoic age.
The highest ridges and peaks are capped by Pennsylvanian sandstone such as the basal Atoka and the "Middle Bloyd". During the late Paleozoic the deep ocean basin that existed in central and southern Arkansas was lifted when South America collided with North America creating the folded Ouachita Mountains and uplifting the Ozark plateau to the north.
Ecology and conservation[ edit ] Formal conservation in the region began when the Ozark National Forest was created by proclamation of President Theodore Roosevelt in to preserveacres 3, Anotheracres 2, The initial forest included area as far south as Mount Magazine and as far east as Sylamore.
Wildlife management areas were founded in the s and 30s to restore populations to viable numbers. Some land was reclaimed by the government through the Resettlement Administration during the Great Depression. Protected areas ensure the recovery of endangered and threatened species of animals and plants, including the Ozark big-eared batIndiana bateastern small-footed bat, southeastern bat, southeastern big-eared bat; longnose darterOzark cavefishOzark cave crayfishBowman's cave amphipodOzark cave amphipod, bat cave isopod ; and Ozark chinquapin.European Colonization on Native Americans - Comanche's Essay.
European Colonization on the Comanche Tribe European colonization had a big effect on the Comanche tribe and other Native Americans - European Colonization on Native Americans - Comanche's Essay introduction.
Due to the introduction of many different things it changed the way they live, hunt and see things from their own . I. Introduction. Native Americans long dominated the vastness of the American West. Linked culturally and geographically by trade, travel, and warfare, various indigenous groups controlled most of the continent west of the Mississippi River deep into the nineteenth century.
GERONIMO RESEARCH PORTAL. I am posting some of the Geronimo research I used in the creation of our Homeland Security poster BECAUSE it is important to know something about the indigenous American tribal histories to better understand the meaning behind this POWERFUL ARTISTIC STATEMENT.. And Geronimo is a lot .
In the year since President Trump’s inauguration, Washington Post photographers set out to explore what unites Americans, through portraiture and audio interviews. Mar 09, · A curated playlist featuring Future, Kelela, Adele and more, with essays by Margo Jefferson, Wesley Morris, Angela Flournoy and others.
Ancient Eurasian Peoples. The term "Eurasian" is indeed a vague classification, yet it is in a certain way more appropriate than other historic definitions that are as much or perhaps more vague than this.