Are we facing a future of stagnant income and worsening inequality? Even more ominous for workers, the MIT academics foresee dismal prospects for many types of jobs as these powerful new technologies are increasingly adopted not only in manufacturing, clerical, and retail work but in professions such as law, financial services, education, and medicine.
Concepts and definitions[ edit ] Health information technology HIT is "the application of information processing involving both computer hardware and software that deals with the storage, retrieval, sharing, and use of health care information, health dataand knowledge for communication and decision making".
However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques.
For HIT, technology represents computers and communications attributes that can be networked to build systems for moving health information. Informatics is yet another integral aspect of HIT. Informatics refers to the science of informationthe practice of information processingand the engineering of information systems.
Informatics underlies the academic investigation and practitioner application of computing and communications technology to healthcare, health education, and biomedical research.
Health informatics refers to the intersection of information science, computer science, and health care.
Health informatics describes the use and sharing of information within the healthcare industry with contributions from computer science, mathematics, and psychology.
It deals with the resources, devices, and methods required for optimizing the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information in health and biomedicine. Health informatics tools include not only computers but also clinical guidelines, formal medical terminologies, and information and communication systems.
Medical informaticsnursing informaticspublic health informaticspharmacy informaticsand translational bioinformatics are subdisciplines that inform health informatics from different disciplinary perspectives. Implementation[ edit ] The Institute of Medicine's call for the use of electronic prescribing systems in all healthcare organizations by heightened the urgency to accelerate United States hospitals' adoption of CPOE systems.
InPresident Bush signed an Executive Order titled the President's Health Information Technology Plan, which established a ten-year plan to develop and implement electronic medical record systems across the US to improve the efficiency and safety of care.
The sooner that healthcare providers adopt the system, the more funding they receive. Those who do not adopt electronic health record systems before do not receive any federal funding.
The most immediate barriers for widespread adoption of this technology have been the high initial cost of implementing the new technology and the time required for doctors to train and adapt to the new system.
There have also been suspected cases of fraudulent billing, where hospitals inflate their billings to Medicare. Given that healthcare providers have not reached the deadline for adopting electronic health records, it is unclear what effects this policy will have long term. In there was widespread interest in a new HL7 draft standard, Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources FHIRwhich is designed to be open, extensible, and easier to implement, benefiting from modern web technologies.
Electronic health record Although the electronic health record EHRpreviously known as the electronic medical record EMRis frequently cited in the literature, there is no consensus about the definition. Clinical guidelines for disease management have a demonstrated benefit when accessible within the electronic record during the process of treating the patient.
A report noted that medical practices in the United States are encountering barriers to adopting an EHR system, such as training, costs and complexity, but the adoption rate continues to rise see chart to right.
The goal of the NHS is to have 60, patients with a centralized electronic health record by The Thorn et al. The problem was seen that exchanges did not address the needs of end users, e. Computerized physician order entry Prescribing errors are the largest identified source of preventable errors in hospitals.
A report by the Institute of Medicine estimated that a hospitalized patient is exposed to a medication error each day of his or her stay. Despite ample evidence of the potential to reduce medication errors, competing systems of barcoding and electronic prescribing have slowed adoption of this technology by doctors and hospitals in the United States, due to concern with interoperability and compliance with future national standards.
Many physicians are not full-time hospital staff; entering orders for their hospitalized patients means taking time away from scheduled patients. The key opportunities here are: The follow-up IOM report, Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century, advised rapid adoption of electronic patient records, electronic medication ordering, with computer- and internet-based information systems to support clinical decisions.
Technological iatrogenesis[ edit ] Technology may introduce new sources of error. Terms to describe this new area of error production include the label technological iatrogenesis  for the process and e-iatrogenic  for the individual error.
The sources for these errors include: Prescriber and staff inexperience may lead to a false sense of security; that when technology suggests a course of action, errors are avoided.
Shortcut or default selections can override non-standard medication regimens for elderly or underweight patients, resulting in toxic doses.Get a Competitive Edge with an Information Technology Degree Online.
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