Orientalists adopted the thesis that Arabic science started only with the translation movement that took place with the reign of the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun in the ninth century CE. Therefore some historians in the West considered the work of Khalid ibn Yazid as legendary or fabricated. With the rise of Islam, and under the Umayyad and the Abbasid caliphates, the area consolidated its position and remained the heart of the civilized world.
History of Minneapolis Sioux natives, city founded[ edit ] Taoyateduta was among the Sioux leaders, who from toceded the land where Minneapolis developed. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading.
Gradually, more European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase.
It attracted traders, settlers and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil Warthe United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota Warinternment and hardship.
The Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town inon the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city inthe year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago. It later joined with the east-bank city of St. Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall.
Stereoscopic view of Minneapolis by Benjamin Franklin Upton Bythe west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes, and planing wood.
Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to truly revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour very quickly.
Pillsbury and the C. Pillsbury Company across the river were barely a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to immediately use the new methods. Minneapolis flour millers routinely dumped" into the Mississippi. Those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process.
Copied by other developers, the practice prevented minorities from owning or leasing such properties.
Though such language was prohibited by state law in and by the federal Fair Housing Act ofrestrictive covenants against minorities remained in many Minneapolis deeds as recently as A hate group known as the Silver Legion of America recruited members in the city and held meetings around to Efforts to save the building failed but are credited with sparking interest in historic preservation in the state.
At left, Pillsburypower plants and the Stone Arch Bridge. At center left are Northwestern Consolidated mills. The tall building is Minneapolis City Hall.
Geography and climate[ edit ] View of downtown Minneapolis across Bde Maka Ska  The history and economic growth of Minneapolis are tied to water, the city's defining physical characteristic, which was brought to the region during the last ice age 10, years ago.
Ice blocks deposited in valleys by retreating glaciers created the lakes of Minneapolis. The site of the Prospect Park Water Tower is often cited as the city's highest point  and a placard in Deming Heights Park denotes the highest elevation.ENDNOTES In this essay I shall utilize original Arabic sources in preference to relying on the differing assumptions of orientalists and modern historians of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
This safe approach was adopted to a large extent also by recent scholars who wrote modern works on Arabic and Islamic science. See Fuat Sezgin and George. Level LING course # Course Title Text Title Author Edition/date ISBN Publisher/Source 4 Guided Research Writing Sourcework: Academic Writing From Sources Nancy Dollahite and Julie Haun2nd/ Heinle Cengage Learning.
This item: Sourcework: Academic Writing from Sources, 2nd Edition by Nancy E. Dollahite Paperback $ Temporarily out of stock. Ships from /5(86). ENG Advanced College Writing. Saint Michael's College Fall Semester 20 13 Class Time: (). Sourcework: Academic writing from sources.
Boston, MA: Heinle Cengage Learning; Web site with Student Tools for SourceWork: Academic Writing from Sources;.
This is “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting”, chapter 13 from the book Successful Writing (v. ). For details on it Writing at Work. For sources on the web, the URL where the source is located;.
Source work in the first-year L2 writing classroom: Undergraduate L2 writers' use of reporting verbs () found that higher rated theses by L2 writers used a much wider range of functions C. Lai, H. ChoStudents' writing from sources for academic purposes: A synthesis of recent research.
Journal of English for Academic Purposes, .