Perhaps the most influential integrative theory of personality is that of psychoanalysis, which was largely promulgated during the first four decades of the 20th century by the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud.
Freiberg, Moravia now Czech Republic Died: September 23, London, England Austrian psychologist, author, and psychoanalyst The work of Sigmund Freud, the Austrian founder of psychoanalysis, marked the beginning of a modern, dynamic psychology by providing the first well-organized explanation of the inner mental forces determining human behavior.
His mother, Amalia Nathanson, was nineteen years old when she married Jacob Freud, aged thirty-nine.
Thus, the boy grew up in an unusual family structure, his mother halfway in age between himself and his father. When he was four, the family moved to Vienna now the capital of Austriathe capital city of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy the complete rule of Central Europe by Hungary and Austria from to Freud would live in Vienna until the year before his death.
However, Emperor Francis Joseph — had liberated the Jews of Austria, giving them equal rights and permitting them to settle anywhere in the empire. Many Jewish families came to Vienna, as did the Freuds inwhere the standard of living was higher and educational and professional opportunities were better than in the provinces.
They lived in an area that had a high concentration of Jewish people, called the Leopoldstadt slum. Freud went to the local elementary school, then attended the Sperl Gymnasium a secondary school in Europe that students attend to prepare for college in Leopoldstadt, from to He studied Greek and Latin, mathematics, history, and the natural sciences, and was a superior student.
He passed his final examination with flying colors, qualifying to enter the University of Vienna at the age of seventeen. His family had recognized his special scholarly gifts from the beginning, and although they had only four bedrooms for eight people, Sigmund had his own room throughout his school days.
He lived with his parents until he was twenty-seven, as was the custom at that time. Pre-psychoanalytic work Freud enrolled in medical school in Vienna had become the world capital of medicine, and the young student was initially attracted to the laboratory and the scientific side of medicine rather than clinical practice.
He spent seven instead of the usual five years acquiring his doctorate. Freud received his doctor of medicine degree at the age of twenty-four.
He fell in love and wanted to marry, but the salaries available to a young scientist could not support a wife and family. He had met Martha Bernays, the daughter of a well-known Hamburg family, when he was twenty-six; they were engaged two months later.
They were separated during most of the four years which preceded their marriage, and married in Freud spent three years as a resident physician in the famous Allgemeine Krankenhaus, a general hospital and the medical center of Vienna.
He spent five months in the psychiatry the area of medicine involving emotional and mental health department headed by Theodor Meynert. Psychiatry at this time was rigid and descriptive.
The psychological meaning of behavior was not itself considered important; behavior was only a set of symptoms to be studied in order to understand the structures of the brain.
Freud, during the last part of his residency, received some money to pursue his neurological having to do with the nervous system studies abroad. Beginning of psychoanalysis Freud returned to Vienna, established himself in the private practice of neurology, and married.
Breuer called his treatment "catharsis" and traced its effectiveness to the release of "pent-up emotions. Together with Breuer he published Studies on Hysteria At about this time Freud began a unique project, his own self-analysis the act of studying or examining oneselfwhich he pursued primarily by analyzing his dreams.
A major scientific result was The Interpretation of Dreams By the turn of the century Freud had developed his therapeutic having to do with treating a mental or physical disability technique, dropping the use of hypnosis and shifting to the more effective and more widely applicable method of "free association.
He recognized that the most powerful among the unconscious forces, which lead to neuroses mental disordersare the sexual desires of early childhood that have been shut out from conscious awareness, yet have preserved their powerful force within the personality.
He described his highly debatable views concerning the early experiences of sexuality in Three Essays on the Theory of Sexualitya work that first met violent protest, but was gradually accepted by practically all schools of psychology the area of science involving the study of the mind.
After Freud gathered a small group of interested colleagues on Wednesday evenings for presentation of psychoanalytic papers and discussion.
This was the beginning of the psychoanalytic movement. Swiss psychiatrists Eugen Bleuler and Carl Jung — formed a study group in Zurich inand the first International Psychoanalytic Congress was held in Salzburg in Later years In Freud developed a cancerous having to do with cancer cells that attack the healthy tissues of the body growth in his mouth, which eventually led to his death sixteen years and thirty-three operations later.
In spite of this, these were years of great scientific productivity.The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (The Standard Edition) (Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud) [Sigmund Freud, James Strachey, Peter Gay] on pfmlures.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Along with the Introductory Lectures on Psycho-analysis, this book remains one of Freud's most widely read. It is filled with anecdotes. Peer Commentary. Freud Alone Ethan R. Plaut Northwestern University.
Beystehner's essay on psychoanalysis is a good introduction to Freudian theory, and also addresses the issue of whether it holds water as a science, but stops there, which is somewhat misleading. Read a biography about Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis.
Discover more about his life, works and theories including 'The Interpretation of Dreams'. Sigmund Freud is best known as the creator of the therapeutic technique known as psychoanalysis.
The Austrian-born psychiatrist greatly contributed to the understanding of human psychology in areas such as the unconscious mind, sexuality, and dream interpretation. Freud was also among the first to. Freud's early life Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, , in Freiberg, Moravia (now Czech Republic).
Sigmund was the first child of his twice-widowed father's third marriage. Nov 28, · Sigmund Freud, the inventor of psychoanalysis, appreciated the many ways in which our minds are troubled and anxious.
It isn't us in particular: it's the hum.