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The physiological effects of fiber refer to its nondigestibility and metabolic effects. Nondigestibility in the small intestine is fundamental to fiber and was part of the first definition put forth by Trowell [ 27 ]. However, nondigestibility and a lack of absorption by the small intestine alone do not guarantee favourable physiological effects.
Depending on physicochemical properties, fibers have a range of physiological consequences including viscosity in the upper gastrointestinal tract [ 3132 ], fermentation in the colon [ 33 ], and prebiotic effects [ 3435 ].
These effects in the gastrointestinal tract improve laxation and increase stool bulking and also have metabolic consequences including improvements in serum lipids and postprandial glycemia and promotion of satiety. Analytical definitions are used for labelling and inspection purposes.
The risk with these types of definitions is that they are not able to recognize new fiber compounds, which may have significant and beneficial health implications. This type of definition is very practical from a regulatory point of view; however, it alone does not actually describe any characteristics of fiber and an analytical method should only be part of a formal regulatory definition.
Definitions of Dietary Fibers The most recent definitions for fiber generally address at least one of four characteristics: With the advances of food science, isolation, modification, and synthesis of many fibers are possible, which have resulted in some jurisdictions distinguishing between naturally occurring fibers from plant source and isolated or synthesized fibers.
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Others have chosen not to adopt this division by either considering all nondigestible carbohydrates as fiber or only those carbohydrates that are intrinsic and intact in plants. Table 1 lists examples of such definitions based on this division.
Categorization of recent definitions of fiber based on whether or not a distinction in dietary fiber source is made. Classification of Dietary Fibers As seen in the previous section, fibers are often classified by their source plant, animal, isolated, synthetic, etc.
However, some carbohydrates do not fit into this categorization. For instance, inulin may have from 2 to fructose units and thus can be both oligo- and polysaccharide [ 35 ]. Physical Solubility and Viscosity Fibers are most commonly characterized based on their solubility. Distinction between soluble and insoluble dietary fibers is based on the solubility characteristics of dietary fiber in hot aqueous buffer solutions [ 38 ].
Solubility of dietary fiber structure cannot be simply described as the solubility in water. Solubility of dietary fibers is rather defined as dissolved or liquefied in a buffer and enzyme solution modeled after, but not necessarily identical to, the aqueous enzyme solutions or slurries present in the human system [ 39 ].
Solubility can be used as a means to broadly characterize the physiological effects of fibers. In general, insoluble fibers increase fecal bulk and the excretion of bile acids and decrease intestinal transit time i. Soluble fibers increase total transit time by delaying gastric emptying and also slow glucose absorption [ 40 ].
Although this characterization of fiber is used to generalize the effects of each fiber type, only soluble viscous fibers delay gastric emptying time and slow glucose absorption while nonviscous soluble fibers primarily act as a substrate for microbial fermentation in the colon [ 33 ].
Physiological Rate of Digestion and Fermentation The rate at which a carbohydrate is digested is determined by a number of factors, including the rate at which carbohydrate leaves the stomach and becomes available for absorption as well as diffusion of released sugars occurs from food bolus [ 41 ].
Thus, the rate at which carbohydrates leave the food matrix and the ability for amylase to act on the carbohydrate is an important determinant of glucose absorption rate and resulting blood glucose levels.
Based on digestion, carbohydrates can be categorized as rapidly or slowly digested or even resistant. Resistant carbohydrates include plant cell wall polysaccharides, gums, fructans, resistant maltodextrins, and resistant starches.
These carbohydrates that resist digestion make their way to the large intestine, where they may be fermented by the gut microflora [ 33 ] or have prebiotic effects [ 34 ]. However, not all fiber is fermented.
Short-chained fatty acids produced from fermentation are mainly sourced from resistant starches [ 4243 ]. Prebiotic fibers alter the balance of the gut microflora towards what is considered to be a healthier one [ 34 ] and includes fructans and resistant starches [ 45 ].
Analytical Methods for Fiber Quantification For food labelling purposes, it is important that analytical methods complement the fiber definition in a given jurisdiction. Fibers are typically measured by enzymatic-gravimetric methods, although there are also gravimetric, nonenzymatic-gravimetric, and enzymatic chemical methods.
Fibers recovered with enzymatic-gravimetric methods include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, some other nonstarch polysaccharides, lignin and some resistant starch. Soluble and insoluble fibers can also be measured separately by this method [ 46 ]. However, these methods do not capture inulin and polydextrose and partially measure resistant starch.
To remedy this, separate procedures have been proposed to quantify these other compounds.Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes mellitus It has been shown that in type 1 diabetes, insulin resistance is present before diagnosis, at diagnosis and a few years after diagnosis.
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